Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

On Friday, December 18, the IRS released final regulations under section 162(m) implementing the statutory changes made in 2017 by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.  Section 162(m), as amended, generally limits the deduction for compensation (also referred to as applicable employee remuneration) paid to the a publicly held corporation’s principal executive officer (“PEO”), principal financial officer (“PFO”), and its three highest-paid executive officers other than the PEO and PFO.  The final regulations are largely unchanged from the proposed regulations released almost exactly one year earlier.  (See earlier coverage.) The IRS did make a small number of changes in response to taxpayer comments, but declined to make changes in a number of areas.
Continue Reading Final 162(m) Regulations Make Few Changes

Yesterday, December 9, the IRS released final regulations implementing the Section 274(a)(4) and 274(l) deduction disallowances, adopted as part of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.  Section 274(a)(4) disallows employer deductions for the cost of providing qualified transportation fringe (“QTF”) benefits provided to employees.  Section 274(l) provides a broader deduction disallowance for expenses paid for, or to reimburse for, employees’ trips between their residences and their places of employment.  Both deduction disallowances took effect for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017.

The final regulations largely follow the approach taken in the proposed regulations issued in June, which built on earlier guidance provided in Notice 2018-99.  Treasury Regulation § 1.274-13 addresses the deduction disallowance under section 274(a)(4) for the cost of QTFs provided under section 132(f), such as qualified parking, transit passes, and other tax-free commuting benefits.  Treasury Regulation § 1.274-14 addresses the deduction disallowance under section 274(a).
Continue Reading IRS Issues Final Regulations on Commuting Expenses Deduction Disallowances

On October 2, 2019, Treasury and the IRS issued proposed regulations relating to the repeal of section 958(b)(4) by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”).  On September 22, 2020, Treasury and the IRS issued final regulations largely following the proposed regulations, along with additional proposed regulations.
Continue Reading Regulations Addressing Section 958(b)(4) Repeal Provide Relief for U.S. Payors but Hold the Line on the Portfolio Interest Exception

On June 23, Proposed Treasury Regulations §§ 1.274-13 and 1.274-14 were published in the Federal Register addressing the disallowance of employer deductions for the cost of providing commuting and parking benefits to employees.  The proposed regulations are a mixed bag with some clarifications being helpful and others less so.  Proposed Treasury Regulation § 1.274-13 addresses the deduction disallowance under section 274(a)(4) for the cost of qualified transportation fringe benefits (QTFs) provided under section 132(f), i.e., qualified parking, transit passes, and other tax-free commuting benefits.  Proposed Treasury Regulation § 1.274-14 addresses the deduction disallowance for employee transportation costs under section 274(l).  Both deduction disallowance provisions were adopted as part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”), and took effect for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017.
Continue Reading Proposed Regulations Regarding TCJA Disallowance for Employee Commuting and Parking Costs a Mixed Bag

Today, the IRS published proposed regulations addressing changes made by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the “TCJA”) to how an employee instructs an employer to withhold income taxes on his or her Form W-4 (Employee’s Withholding Certificate). The Form W-4 was redesigned for 2020 to reflect the TCJA changes to how income tax withholding from wages must be calculated.

The proposed regulations update existing regulations under section 3402 to reflect TCJA’s shift from relying on “withholding exemptions” to determine an employee’s income tax withholdings to the more complicated “withholding allowance” methodology that is putatively designed to neutralize the impact of other changes, such as the elimination of certain Schedule A adjustments to gross income for employees. Before settling on a final Form W-4 implementing these changes, the IRS received feedback on multiple draft form revisions that criticized the form as being complex and confusing. In addition, concerns were raised about the amount of personal information regarding an employee’s other jobs and earnings required to complete early drafts of the form. The 2020 Form W-4 addressed some of these criticisms, but still remains more complicated than the earlier form. Time will tell whether employees are able to easily adapt to the new form, or if errors in completing the form could result in employee underwithholding.

Select portions of the proposed regulations are discussed below. We will continue to update our readers on significant developments as the regulations are finalized. We discuss other effects of the TCJA elsewhere on our blog.
Continue Reading IRS Releases Proposed Regulations on the Mechanics of Income Tax Withholding

In a news release, the IRS today announced that it anticipates issuing initial withholding guidance to implement the changes under the tax reform bill in January 2018.  Employers and payroll service providers are encouraged to implement the changes in February.  In the release, the IRS indicated that the withholding guidance will work with the existing

Earlier today, the Senate Finance Committee released legislative text of its version of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.  Up until now, only “conceptual language” had been available.  The text clarifies some of the provisions that we have previously discussed in our posts about the Senate bill (see earlier discussion here) and includes new information reporting requirements that we have not previously covered:

  • The legislative text would disallow any deduction for meals provided at the convenience of the employer and meals provided in an “employer-operated eating facility.” If the employer chooses to offer food and beverages, they will remain excludable (to the extent currently excludable) from the employee’s income and wages under section 132, but the cost of providing them would not be deductible.  It is somewhat unclear what the effect of the deduction disallowance would be with respect to employer-operated eating facilities that collect sufficient revenue to cover their operating expenses.  Arguably, the provision could result in the employer recognizing revenue for the food and beverages sold to employees in the facility but having no deduction for the costs associated with selling food and beverages.  (Update: Upon further thought, we believe that the employer would not lose the deduction to the extent the employees pay for food and beverages purchased from the employer-operated eating facility because only the value of such food and beverages in excess of the amount paid is excludible from income under Code section 132(e) as a deminis fringe benefit.)  The new total deduction disallowance would be repealed for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2025, provided government revenue exceeds a target during the period 2018 through 2026.  The provision is effective if the cumulative on-budget Federal revenue from all sources for the 2018 through 2026 government fiscal years exceeds $28.387 trillion.
  • As expected, the text would eliminate the exclusion for bicycle commuting reimbursements, but in a surprise, the elimination is only temporary. The bill adds a new Code section 132(f)(8), which suspends the availability of section 132(f)(1)(D) from 2018 through 2025.  The exclusion would become available again in 2026.  This suggests that the Finance Committee’s decision to eliminate this exclusion may be driven more by revenue demands than by policy considerations, as it helps ensure the reconciliation bill meets the revenue target within the budget window.

Continue Reading Senate Tax Reform Legislative Text Clarifies Some Provisions

Yesterday, the House Ways and Means Committee released the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R. 1) (the “Bill”), a bill that, if enacted, would represent the most substantial overhaul of the U.S. tax code in decades.  Section 3307 of the Bill makes several changes to the deduction limitations under section 274 related to meals and entertainment expenses.  The Bill also expands the reach of the deduction limitations to disallow deductions for de minimis fringe benefits excluded from income under Code section 132(e), unless the employer includes such amounts in the employee’s taxable income. With respect to tax-exempt entities, section 3308 of the Bill would treat funds used to provide employees transportation fringe benefits and on-premises gyms and other athletic facilities as unrelated business taxable income.

Total Disallowance of Deductions for Entertainment Expenses.  Under Code section 274(a), a taxpayer may not deduct expenses for entertainment, amusement, or recreation (“entertainment expenses”), unless the taxpayer establishes that the item was directly related to the active conduct of the taxpayer’s business, subject to a number of exceptions in Code section 274(e) (e.g., reimbursed expenses; expenses treated as compensation to (or included in the gross income of) the recipient; recreational, social, and similar activities primarily for the benefit of employees other than highly compensated employees; entertainment sold to customers).  If the taxpayer establishes that the entertainment expenses were directly related to the active conduct of its trade or business, section 274(n) limits the deduction to 50 percent of expenses relating to entertainment, subject to a number of exceptions, many of which are the same exceptions that apply to the 100 percent disallowance under Code section 274(a) (e.g., reimbursed expenses; expenses treated as compensation to (or included in the gross income of) the recipient; recreational, social, and similar activities primarily for the benefit of employees other than highly compensated employees; entertainment sold to customer).

The Bill would amend section 274(a) to eliminate the exception for entertainment expenses directly related to the active conduct of the taxpayer’s business.  Accordingly, deductions for entertainment expenses would be fully disallowed unless one of the exceptions under Code section 274(e) applies.  The Bill would also make changes to some of the exceptions under Code section 274(e), described below.
Continue Reading Impact of Tax Cuts and Jobs Act: Part II – Deduction Disallowances for Entertainment Expenses and Certain Fringe Benefits

Yesterday, the House Ways and Means Committee released the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R. 1) (the “Bill”), a bill that, if enacted, would represent the most substantial overhaul of the U.S. tax code in decades.  We are releasing a series of posts to highlight the provisions of the Bill affecting the topics pertinent to our readers, where each post will cover a different area of importance.  In Part I of this series, we covered potential changes to employer-provided benefits, and in Part II, we addressed entertainment expenses and other fringe benefits.  In Part III, we discussed the Bill’s potential impact on various retirement provisions.  In this Part IV of the series, we address proposed changes to the deduction limitation for executive compensation under Code section 162(m).

Currently, Code section 162 allows as a deduction all ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business.   This includes a deduction for reasonable compensation for personal services actually rendered.   However, Code section 162(m) limits the deduction of any publicly held corporation with respect to compensation paid to a “covered employee” to $1 million.   However, certain types of compensation—such as qualified performance-based compensation and commissions—are not subject to the deduction limitation.  Covered employees are defined to include the chief executive officer (“CEO”), as of the close of the taxable year and the officers whose compensation is required to be reported to shareholders by reason of being among the three most highly compensated officers for the taxable year (other than the CEO).

Section 3802 of the Bill would amend section 162(m) in three key ways: (1) it would eliminate the exceptions for qualified performance-based pay and commissions; (2) it would extend the deduction disallowance to a broader array of companies; and (3) it would amend the definition of covered employee to more closely align with current SEC disclosure requirements and make covered employee status permanent.
Continue Reading Impact of Tax Cuts and Jobs Act: Part IV – Changes to the Section 162(m) Deduction Limitation for Executive Compensation